II. PERSPECTIVES

This is a spectrum of perspectives of the Human Being Visceral System Mechanics in integration with Universal Mechanics, from the point of view of the RESPIRATORY PULSE throughout twenty years of analysis, interpretation, new discoveries, demonstrations and synthesis.- Update.


PERSPECTIVE ONE

FEATURES DEFINING THE NEW MECHANICAL MODEL OF THE RESPIRATORY APPARATUS

LIFE IS A CONTINUOUS SELF-MAKING.

LIVING BEINGS AND ATMOSPHERE CONSTITUTE AN INTEGRATED MECHANICAL UNIT FOR MAINTENANCE OF CREATED LIFE.

 


FEATURES

1. Lung, from the mechanical point of view, is a complex hydro-pneumatic pump.

2. Each pulmonary lobe has a tree-like elastic tubular Design, known as "bronchial tree", rooted in their corresponding right or left main bronchus.

3. The branches of the bronchial tree or bronchi originate from successive dichotic divisions, to achieve a similar division and distribution of the contained mass of air, in geometric progression. 

4. The finest bronchi of each lobar tree or center-lobular bronchioli, give origin to dichotic divisions generating the lobuli or lobular bronchiolar trees, with a similar design to the lobar or mother tree. The finest bronchioli contains the alveoli or units for gas diffusion. 

5. The lobuli are autonomous functional structures for pulmo-cardiac functional integration leading to the specific task of gas exchange at the alveolar-capillary units. Therefore, their dynamics is under Sympathetic control on vagal tone, as is the Heart. A necessary relationship 

6. Cyclic and steadily balanced circulation of organic fluids: blood and air as referred to above and interstitial liquid among others, is only possible because the Organism is an Integrated System of Fluids Mechanics, controlled by the Central Nervous System, under Vagus Sympathetic command. 

7. The autonomous muscles of the bronchi and bronchioli, as well as those of the extra-pulmonary airways, generate co-ordinate forces to achieve their corresponding task, in a similar manner as the muscles of the Heart and blood vessels. This is a necessary condition for the integrated Visceral Mechanical System. Vagus and sympathetic nerve fibers innervate all the involved autonomous muscles: The same command under the same central control. 

8. The muscle fibers of the airways or Reissessen’s muscles show a similar distribution to a geodesic web (Miller-Mason). Therefore, their contraction decrease their length and diameter; hence, decrease their capacities, with proportional pressure increase in the contained masses of air (Boyle-Mariotte Principle). This is the essence of the Lung’s autonomic-automatic Mechanics. 

9. The broncho-constriction immediate task is to increase the contained mass of air per volume unit, creating conditions to favor its displacement in the sense of lower resistance, once bronchorelaxation is initiated. 

10. Air circulation throughout the bronchi and bronchioli also demands the presence, and cyclic action, of appropriate structures to orient the sense of simultaneous air streams in different destination. These structures, described by Miller as "Sphincter-like" and I define as real sphincters, are made objective in the concentration of muscle fibres around the edge of bronchial dichotic divisions.

11. Broncho constriction-retraction of the pulmonary structure, produced by vagal dischage, also traction the Diaphragm, to mechanically stimulate the Phrenic nerve, in order to initiate reflex contraction (viscero-somatic reflex). The Diaphragm’s contraction flattens its dome; thus increasing the thorax’s capacity while also helping the expansion of the intrapulmonary air mass previously pressurized because of broncho-constriction (Lung expansion). 

12. Broncho-constriction lasts a very short period, followed by a long lasting tonic-relaxation, as a condition for the Lung’s elastic retraction, which is slowed by the Phrenic Diaphragm tonic relaxation and the Intercostal Diaphragm contraction. This is a cyclic mechanical procedure to steadily balance the pressure of the air mass remaining into the lobar bronchi, during and after its use and expelling at the alveolar-capillary units. The end of this elastic retraction coincides with the exhaustion of the air mass available for this ending cycle, thus giving way to a new one. 

13. The Diaphragm is the main active exterior reflex support of the pulmonary structure, also aiding in the expansion of the previously ejected mass of air, followed by its steady pressure balance during its use and pulmonary elastic retraction. 

14. The pulmonary bronchi and bronchioli constitute a complex System for air circulation, conceptually similar to the complex System for blood circulation. Therefore, each one of these systems is only a sub-system. The Whole Circulatory System is the Organism, since the circulation of each one and all of the organic fluids are integrated, being complementary; they achieve partial functions to integrate the whole organic dynamics in order to succeed in maintenance of created Life.  

15. Right and left main bronchi, Trachea and Larynx, with the Glottis, are extra-pulmonary airways under the same nervous control, thus constituting a functional mechanical unit for cyclic renovation of the air mass used by the pulmonary lobes during each respiratory cycle.

They have capacity to store the air used during the previous cycle, pressurize it for its exit as a jet, then refill with preconditioned air coming from the Naso-pharynx, which also refills in its turn with air from the Atmosphere, to be conditioned for the next cycle. 

16. All these regional and partial cyclic processes are simultaneously performed, obeying the same cyclic vagal discharge. Thus their synchrony and proportional results.  

17. The performance of this autonomic cyclic process is automatic, automatism that is programmed in the Working Design and Structure, by means of generation and performance of a chain of visceral, viscero-somatic and somato-somatic reflexes, with their simultaneous and/or successive integrated objectives.

This mechanism integrates the whole structure of the Trunk, visceral and somatic, as a dynamic-functional unit, while it succeeds in the integration of the Organic Dynamics with Universal Dynamics.

  

PULMONARY RESPIRATION IS A AUTONOMIC FUNCTION, AS IS TISSUE RESPIRATION, BOTH OF MATHEMATICAL EXACTITUDE IN A HEALTHY ORGANISM AND HABITAT.

 

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