INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

Science and Society


The Review of Scientific Knowledge relative to Vital Functions in accordance with the Fundamental Human Right to Life and Health is a challenge facing the XXI Century.

 

Mankind's interest must be at the highest level in relation to any other interests concerning individuals and or established groups in Social Life.

The overwhelming area of positive knowledge concerning Mankind is that relative to Life and Health and this must be based on scientific understanding of the Nature and Organic Role in maintaining Created Life in balance with the Atmosphere of the Earth. Errors in this understanding are potential causes of failures in medical practice and applied technologies.

The Lung's autonomic mechanical performance has remained unknown under the shadow of traditional beliefs never demonstrated with scientific rigour. To unveil and interpret this reality has been my task for over twenty years.

Traditional dominant beliefs establish that the Lung is a passive organ. Consequently, no possible autonomic mechanics has been attributed to it, with consequences in medical practices. This creates responsibilities, with Ethical and Legal consequences.

As a matter of fact, Science faces today two contrasting theories relative to understanding of the pulmonary role in the achievement of Organic Mechanics for Life and Health. Elucidation of the Truth is the challenge for this end of Century and beginning of the new millennium.

As a matter of fact Pulmonary Respiration is a very complex autonomic-automatic function, whose Mechanical process has remained practically unknown, veiled under the shadow of impairing traditional beliefs.

Therefore, I assumed the responsibility of interpret this mechanics from the very moment I discovered signs that were uncontroversial proofs of the Lung being an active organ

This commitment led me to design a New Scientific Model of the Respiratory Apparatus and System and furthermore, a model of the whole Working Organic System as a Mechanical System of Fluids in integration with the Atmosphere.

It is well known that Respiration, as a global phenomenon, is relative to organic metabolism, being Oxygen a necessary element for this process and CO2 a product of the organic combustion. The performance of cyclic renovation of Oxygen and elimination of the waste characterises this function.

Gas exchange with cells on one side and with alveolar air on the other side have a common medium for gas transportation, which is the Blood, although under different load conditions.

Gas exchange with alveolar capillary blood on one side and air renovation from the Atmosphere on the other, also have a common medium for transportation of those gases, which is the mass of gas mixture of the air, although under different conditions along its transportation.

As Heart and blood vessels fulfil specific mechanics for blood transportation to tissues and alveoli. Lung and extra-pulmonary airways achieve specific mechanics for air transportation from the Atmosphere to each one and all of the millions of alveoli, simultaneously and with homogeneous physiological conditions. Both mechanics are complementary; consequently they must be performed by structures obeying specific designs for different objectives and common ends, also under common nerve control.

Intra-pulmonary air mass, as it is delivered to the alveoli, is the specific media for the blood's gas exchange, after which this mass is ejected in a conversely stream, towards the extra-pulmonary airways for renovation with the Atmosphere.

Atmospheric air is an inorganic mass of gases under environmental conditions. Therefore, it must be adapted, "organised", while being delivered to the alveoli.

Air physiological adaptation during transportation demands specific air passageways from the nasal opening up to the alveoli, which must be provided with a timed procedure. These passageways are:

1. Lobar bronchial and bronchiolar trees, which are specific and complementary dynamic units.

2. Main right and left bronchi. Trachea and Larynx, completing a mechanical functional unit attached to the lobes on one side and to the Naso-Pharynx on the other.

3. Naso-Pharynx, as the upper passageway with a programmed capacity to receive, store and start conditioning of the inspired air mass.

Airways as a whole accomplish common and specific roles in acclimatisation, pressurisation, transportation, division, distribution and final delivery of the inspired air mass up to the alveoli. They also play common and specific roles during the conduction of the used air towards the Atmosphere.

Cardio-Circulatory Mechanics is quite well known. Therefore, I think its functional model could be useful in helping to understand the New Model of the Pulmonary Respiratory Mechanics, since they share similar objectives for common ends. In this sense, it is useful to bear in mind that their different structural designs are mainly relative to different mechanical behaviour of the fluids in liquid or gas state, apart from some particular objectives.

As cardiac muscles enclose the cavities of the Heart as integrated hydraulic pumps, Reissessen's muscles surround the lumen of the lobar bronchi and lobular bronchioli as integrated pneumatic pumps. Therefore, each pulmonary lobe is in itself a pneumatic pump designed to adapt a proportional fraction of the air mass to be used in total cyclic pulmonary respiration, which is simultaneously fulfilled by the five lobes; this is a matter concerning division of work and organic design.

The mechanical role of the pulmonary lobes in their ensemble is similar to that of the Heart and blood vessels.

Main right and left bronchi. Trachea and Larynx, closed by the Glottis, are receptor cavities for the air used by the lobes during the former cycle, to be then ejected towards the Atmosphere. They also are alternating cavities for reception of a renewed mass of air coming from the Pharynx, also contributing to further adaptation to conditions demanded by the lobes.

The Glottis, under Vagus command, determines the moment for the used air ejection: Expiration, coincident with the starting point of Glottis relaxation, which is followed by the renewed air intake, from the Pharynx: Inspiration.

While the lobes are concerned with air renovation from their corresponding right or left bronchus and gas exchange with the blood, extra-pulmonary airways are concerned with air renovation from the Atmosphere, complementing lobar cyclic dynamics.

The New Model of separated but integrated subsystems for blood circulation and air circulation, constituting a unitary System of Fluids Mechanics deserves attention in order to offer a better scientific assistance to patients, as well as better preventive measures, all in defence of Life in Health.

 


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